Facilities

Some of the facilities available from the partners of the network EXTREME are summarized here and grouped by category. Many other facilities are also available. For further information, please contact us.

 

 

Fabrication and treatment of materials (bulk, coatings, etc.)


  • Powder metallurgy for manufacturing of bulk materials

–    Ball milling
–    Hydraulic presses
–    Spark plasma sintering
–    Gas atomization (pre-alloying furnace for complicated alloys or intermetallic compounds)
–    Spray drying

  • Materials casting and forming

–    Consolidation, extrusion, rolling, forging, pressing
–    Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP)
–    Powder Injection Molding (PIM)
–    Self-propagating High temperature Synthesis (SHS)
–    Additive manufacturing: Selective Laser Melting (SLM); Direct Write Thermal Spray (DWTS); Nozzle Dispensing Process (DWP)

  • Thermal spraying

–    Atmospheric Plasma Spray (APS)
–    High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF)
–    Arc Spray
–    Flame Spray

  • Pre-industrial advanced PVD system for hard coatings deposition with:

–    High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS)
–    Bipolar Pulsed Dual Magnetron Sputtering (BPDMS)
–    Cathodic arc deposition
–    Plasma etching
–    Chamber dimensions: d = 650 mm; h = 850 mm

  • PVD multi-chamber cluster system with:

–    Thermal and e-beam evaporation chamber
–    Sputtering chamber with 4 confocal targets (2 RF and 2 pulsed DC)
–    Up to 6 samples management through central robot
–    Glove-box connection to ALD system

  • Atomic layer deposition (ALD) with thermal and plasma ALD processes
  • Electrosynthesis and ionic liquids
  • Sol-gel synthesis
  • Chemical synthesis
  • Other deposition systems: magnetron RF, DC, pulsed DC sputtering; planar, confocal, top-down, bottom-up, vertical deposition geometries; chemical vapor deposition (CVD and PE-CVD); etc.
  • Ion implantation
  • Plasma treatments and etching
  • Chemical etching, electrolytic polishing, desmutting
  • Automatic pilot plant for surface treatments
  • Rapid thermal annealing and tube furnaces with different atmospheres
  • Mixers
  • Laser machining: cutting, welding, cladding, surface alloying, surface cleaning

 

 

Characterization and testing of materials


  • High-resolution electron microscopy (FE-SEM, TEM)
  • He-ion microscopy (HeIM)
  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
  • Microtomography and Nanotomography
  • X-ray diffraction (XRD, SAXS, etc.)
  • Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)
  • Electron-probe microanalysis (EDS)
  • Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
  • Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UPS, ESCA)
  • Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)
  • Synchrotron radiation measurement
  • Metallography
  • Optical characterization: UV-VIS-NIR, FT-IR, Raman, atomic absorption, (AAS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy
  • Profilometry
  • Particle size analysis: size distribution, density, specific surface
  • Thermal characterization

–    Laser flash for thermal diffusivity, conductivity and capacity
–    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)
–    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)
–    Thermography

  • Thermoelectric characterization: thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, Hall effect, Seebeck coefficient
  • Hardness and adhesion testing: Vickers, micro-Vickers, Brinell hardness, nanoindentation, and scratch test
  • Wear and friction testing
  • Mechanical testing

–    Loading, tensile, compressive, shear, bending, torsion, fatigue, creep, fracture testing, at low and high temperatures, at low and high cycles, under environmental conditions
–    Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)
–    High-speed tensile testing

  • Electrochemical measurements
  • Permeation measurements
  • Rheometry
  • Corrosion, tribocorrosion and degradation testing under different and combined environments: saline, humidity, industrial (Kesternich, SO2), H2S, acetic acid salt spray, UV, temperature, etc.
  • Natural marine exposure sites
  • Climatic chambers and autoclaves

 

 

ICT, modeling and computational tools


  • High performance computing: ENEAGRID/CRESCO with 0.5 PF; linux cluster with GPU enhanced nodes
  • Virtual laboratories
  • Ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations
  • Tools for post-processing and visualization
  • Structural, mechanical, electronic, magnetic and thermodynamical properties, through the Computational MAterials Science and Technology virtual lab (CMAST, www.afs.enea.it/project/cmast)
  • Simulation and optimization of production systems and processes
  • Life-cycle-assessment softwares to support the modeling of technologies, processes, product or service
  • Mechanical and thermo-mechanical simulation of materials and products
  • High-speed deformation simulation
  • Forming simulation
  • Welding simulation

 

 

Recovery and recycling technologies


  • Equipment (up to pilot scale) for recovery and refining of materials by pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy methods
  • Molten salt chemical and electrochemical technologies
  • Recycling from end-of-life wastes by using ionic liquid technology
  • Recycling of waste into artificial aggregate or fillers

 

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